— published in: On drifting (2020)
— 1. & 2. in : Chadia Arab. Le "hrague" ou comment les Marocains brûlent les frontières. In: Hommes et Migrations, no1266, Mars-avril 2007. Nouvelles figures de l’immigration en France et en Méditerranée, p.87
— with the authorization of the author and from the publication Hommes et Migrations

1 (…) is used to mean crossing the border illegally, in the sense of crossing the border illegally, “ burning ” it, transcending it, transgressing it. (…)

2 (…) Hrague, ahrig according to the authors who use it, is a word that seems to have become widespread in the nineties. It therefore appears at the same time as the phenomenon it describes. (…) But it seems to have appeared much earlier, several centuries ago already. Tarik Ibn Zyad [Berber leader], for example, used the term when he was preparing to march on Andalusia, setting fire to his own fleet to avoid a retreat and forcing his men to fight. So was he not already practicing hrague? (…)